Workshop and site visit in Southern Denmark, 27th to 28th April.
Why capture CO2? And how? Do we have to store CO2 or do we need to recycle it?
How do local project regional authorities cope with strategies? Is there a business potential in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and Carbon Sinks (CS)?
Lorie Hamelin from the University of Southern Denmark pointed to the fact that we would need 4 to 5 times more crops on the top of today’s agriculture to fully replace fossil by biomass. The need of crops has to be covered by increasing land for the use of agriculture. However, this land is difficult and expensive to cultivate. We therefore have to find solutions in the non fossil society based on biomass.
Lorie therefore strongly promoted the idea of capturing, upgrading and recycling of bio-carbon as a precondition for the non fossil system
Carbon Capture and Storage – a temporary tool?
Maurice Hanegraaf from the Global Climate Institute presented the initiatives on Carbon Capture and Storage - CCS. There are many CCS projects in USA due to the combination with oil recovery, but very few in the rest of the world. One of the European projects is the Rotterdam climate initiative which is a public-private initiative to reduce CO2-emission with 50%. CCS is part of the solution and can provide 24 % of the CO2 reduction.
Captured CO2 can replace industrial produced CO2 in oil recovery, but will still require re-capture of CO2 in the oil. But other solutions than permanent storage have to be found to meet the needs, e.g. greenhouse and algae.
At the moment CCS is the most cost effective means of avoiding emissions. However, CCS is a temporary tool until others solutions are available for reasonable costs, according to Maurice Hanegraaf.
Sander Bruun from the University of Copenhagen made a presentation of Biochar as an emerging technology for carbon sequestration. Biochar may be useful for improving yields in poor soils to increase production of food and biomass for bioenergy. Also, biochar prevents reductions of soil quality related to the removal of biomass for bioenergy and reduce emissions of secondary greenhouse gasses. Finally it improves water use efficiently and avoids leaching of pesticides.
The business potential in production and sale of biochar is huge, once it is possible to store biochar in a safe way and effective ways to apply it to the soil have been developed.
Chestnut forests as Carbon Sinks
Celia Martinez from CETEMAS presented the Spanish part of the Sub-project CARBON.CARE. CETEMAS aims at assessing the potential carbon stock change due to improvement in management of Chestnut forests in Asturias. The knowledge about the potential of mitigation of Carbon Capture in products will be transferred to local farmers and forest owners.
Carbon Sinks in Denmark – a Case Study
Anne Mette Benzon from the enterprise COWI presented a case study on Carbon Sinks in the Aarhus area. The objective of the study had been to get an overview of the CO2 effects of approved future territorial plans. It was also to conduct a socio-economic comparison of the proposed plans in the open areas, which affects both the nitrogen, the phosphorus and the CO2. Analyses of the measures show that reforestation is the most effective instrument as Carbon Sinks.
The conclusions were that if the goal is solely to reduce CO2 emissions, carbon sinks are not the cheapest way forward. However, carbon sinks based on changes in use of areas was a positive side effect to planned efforts to improve the water environment, prevent pollution of groundwater, create more recreational areas and general urban development.
Finally, Karsten Møller from the University of Aarhus presented another case study from the wetlands. The conclusions were that wetlands are important sources AND sinks of greenhouse gasses due to the huge carbon pool in the soils. However, only improved knowledge of restoration projects can help maximise the carbon sinks processes while minimising the carbon sources in the wetlands.
Carbon Constraints of a Fossil Free Society by Lorie Hamelin, University of Southern Denmark
Biochar - an emerging technology for carbon swequestration by Sander Bruun, University of Copenhagen
CARBON.CARE: Challenges, objective and activities of a LoCaRe subproject by Elena Tamburini
Carbon Sinks in Asturias by Celia Martinez
Carbon Sinks in Denmark: A Case Study from Aarhus Municipality by Anne Mette R. von Bentzon
The role of wetlands by Karsten Møller